Glossary of Scientific Terms

2AG: 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endocannabinoid

Active ingredient: It is an ingredient that is biologically active and serves the purpose of that particular product.

AEA: N-arachidonoylethanolamine, a type of endocannabinoid.

Allergen: A substance that elicits allergic reaction

Alpha-hydroxy acids: A class of chemical compounds.

Antagonist: A substance that opposes the function of another substance or receptor.

Anti-inflammatory: Anything that reduces inflammation or inhibits inflammatory response is called anti-inflammatory.

Anti-oxidants: Substances that prevent oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Anti-pruritic agent: A substance that helps relieve pruritis or itch

Atopic eczema: Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is a condition that makes your skin red and itchy.

ATP: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is energy currency of our body.

Autoimmune disorder: These are the diseases in which our own immune system starts fighting against our own body cells.

Borax: It is a powdery white mineral.

Butylene glycol: A chemical widely used in cosmetic industry.

cAMP: cAMP is a messenger that is involved in many reactions in our body. It transmits message.

Carbopol: Carbopol is a water-soluble polymer, used as an emulsifying, stabilizing, suspending, thickening and gelling agent in many industries.

Cellulite: Cellulite is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests on the skin surface as skin dimpling and nodularity.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): It’s a fluid present in the brain and spinal cord. It provides nutrition to these structures and removes waste products.

Ceresin: Ceresin is a wax derived from ozokerite by a purifying process.

Collagen: Collagen is also a protein present in the skin and many other tissues in the body. It provides firmness and strength. In the absence or decreased production, as in old age, the skin becomes saggy and wrinkled.

Corneocytes: Cells present in stratum corneum. The cells contain collagen and are mature and hard.

Cornified envelopes: A cornified envelope is a layer that is formed under the cell membrane of mature skin cells present on the surface. It works as a physical barrier from external environment.

Deionized water: Deionized water is a type of drink which removed all of its ions, and it has no charge.

Dendritic cells: Dendritic cells are a type of immune cells. When a harmful agent enters our body, these cells engulf it and then present it to other immune cells, so that they can get activated and fight it off.

Dermatitis: Skin inflammation is called dermatitis.

Dermis: It is the deeper layer of skin which is found under the superficial skin layer known as epidermis.

Dermis: It is the middle layer of the skin which is present below epidermis. It contains blood vessels, nerve endings, glands that secrete sebum and hair follicles along with immature skin cells.

Differentiation of skin cells: Differentiation is a process of maturation of skin cells. The lowermost layer of skin contains many immature cells that keep dividing and differentiating replacing old skin cells.

Downregulation: Decrease in size and number.

Eczema: An inflammatory skin condition that causes itchiness and dryness.

Elastin: It is a type of protein present in the skin and many other tissues. It functions to provide elasticity to the structures.

Emollient: Emollient is a greasy substance that keeps skin soft and moisturized.

Emulsifier: Emulsifier is a substance that prevents two liquids from separating when the liquids are not soluble in each other usually, such as oil and water. It keeps the particles of one liquid suspended in the other one.

Endocannabinoids: Endocannabinoids are chemicals that get attached to CB1 and CB2 receptors and transmit signals.

Enzyme inhibition: Interfering or stopping the function of an enzyme

Epidermis: It is the outermost skin layer, one of three major skin layers.

Ethyl hexyl palmitate: A colorless, odorless liquid used in the cosmetic industry.

Extracellular environment: The environment present outside the cell is called extracellular environment. It is mainly composed of fluid that has many chemicals in it.

FAAH: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that mediates the breakdown of endocannabinoids to make them inactive.

Fat soluble: A chemical/ingredient/product that only dissolved in fats rather than water.

Glucose metabolism: The whole process of formation, uptake, storage, and breakdown of glucose.

Glycolic acid: A type of alpha-hydroxy acids widely used in cosmetics.

GPR-55 and GPR-119: Receptors for acylethanolamides. Acylethanolamides are lipid substances widely distributed in the body.

Hair Follicle: A hair follicle is a part of the skin, which grows a hair by packing old cells together.

Humectant: A humectant is a type of moisturizer that attracts and retains the moisture in the air nearby via absorption.

Immune cells: Immune cells are a part of immune system. These cells protect our body against diseases and harmful agents by fighting and killing them. These cells include macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, NK cells etc.

Immune system: The immune system is a defense system of our body that comprises of different cells and organs. It helps our body fight diseases.

Inflammation: Inflammation is our body’s response to a harmful agent in attempt to clear it from the body. It is characterized by swelling, redness, pain in the affected tissue.

Insulin sensitivity: It is the ability of our body to respond to insulin hormone. This hormone helps in glucose metabolism.

Isopropyl myristate: An emollient which is used as a cream base for good absorption.

Keratinocytes: These are the skin cells that produce keratin that is protein responsible to give strength to our skin.

Leukocytes: They are white blood cells. These cells fight infectious agent. White blood cells include B and T lymphocytes, neutrophils etc.

Lichen simplex: Lichen simplex is a skin disorder characterized by chronic itching and scratching. The constant scratching causes thick, leathery, darkened skin.

Lipid barrier: Our skin has a layer of lipid on the surface. These lipids are secreted by the glands in the skin. This layer is called lipid barrier because it prevents water loss and protects the skin.

Lipid Metabolism: The whole process of formation, storage and breakdown of lipids in the body.

Liver enzymes: Enzymes are substances that help in performing chemical reactions in the body. The enzymes present in liver are called liver enzymes.

LPS: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules that come into existence when lipids and carbohydrates combine together.

Lymph nodes: Lymph nodes are small glands that filter lymph, the clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system. They are a part of immune system.

Lymphocytes: They are white blood cells that basically have two types, B and T. They fight external invaders through various mechanisms.

Macrophages: They are large immune cells that fight infectious agents by engulfing and killing them.

Mast cells: Mast cells are a type of immune cells that release histamine, a substance that causes allergy symptoms like swelling, itching, redness etc.

Melanin: A dark colored pigment found in the skin. It gives color to the skin.

Melanocytes: The skin cells that produce melanin pigments.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): MS is an inflammation of the brain that is chronic in nature.

Neuropathic pain: It is pain that is caused due to damage to nerves.

Oleoylethanolamide: A type of endocannabinoid.

Oxidative damage: Damaged caused by free radicals produced due to oxidation reactions.

PEA: Palmitoylethanolamide, a type of endocannabinoid.

Peyer’s Patches: Peyer's patches are small masses of lymphatic tissue found throughout the ileum region of the small intestine. Lymphatic tissue contains B and T lymphocytes and other immune cells aggregated at a place. They help fight intestinal infections.

Polysorbate20: It is a type of emulsifier used in creams to stabilize them.

PPAR: This is another kind of receptors present inside cells and they regulate gene expression in the nucleus of a cell.

Prurigo: The term prurigo refers to intensely itchy spots on the skin.

Pruritis: Itchy sensation

Pruritis: Redness and itchiness of the skin due to different reasons.

Psoriasis: An inflammatory skin condition that causes itchiness, dryness and scaling. It also affects joints.

Refractory pruritis: Skin itching that does not respond to treatment.

Sensory neurons: Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli, such as heat, from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses that are conducted to nervous system.

Shea butter: Shea butter is a vegetable fat obtained from the fruit of a tree native to Africa, Butyrospermum parkii.

Skin barrier: Skin barrier is the outermost layer of the skin that protects the lower layers from dryness and environmental factors.

Smooth muscles: This is a type of muscles that is not under voluntary control, i.e. we cannot contract them with our own will.

Sodium Behenoyl Lactylate: This substance is derived from vegetables. It acts as an emulsifier, humectant and conditioner.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): A surfactant found in soaps, detergents and creams.

Solute: The substance that is dissolved in a solvent.

Stratum corneum: The outermost cell layer of epidermis that consists of hard and mature skin cells.

Surfactant: Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

TPRV-1: A type of receptor made of proteins. It gets activated by capsaicin, a type of chemical compound.

Uremic Pruritis: Skin itching due to high level of urea in the blood. Urea is a waste product that needs to be excreted from the body.

Yucca schidigera: Yucca schidigera, also known as the Mojave yucca or Spanish dagger, is a flowering plant that is native to the Mojave Desert, Chihuahuan Desert and Sonoran Desert of southeastern California, Baja California, New Mexico, southern Nevada and Arizona.